Ppositive and negative effects dating
In general, species adapted to open habitats are often positively affected by grazing, while species needing denser cover are negatively affected.Studies of wild ungulates are more variable in methodology and quality than those for small mammals.For example, the site cannot determine your email name unless you choose to type it.Allowing a website to create a cookie does not give that or any other site access to the rest of your computer, and only the site that created the cookie can read it.
A total of 807 sources were included in the final list, including 646 primary sources which reported original data.In a number of systems, conservation efforts are increasingly aimed at managing land for livestock–wildlife coexistence.The effects of cattle grazing on vegetation and soil dynamics have been extensively studied (Milchunas and Lauenroth 1993, Belsky and Blumenthal 1997, Holechek 1999, Stahlheber and D'Antonio 2013).Individual species responses of small mammals vary.Voles, harvest mice, cotton rats, and shrews show consistently negative responses to grazing while deer mice, kangaroo rats, ground squirrels, and lagomorphs show positive or variable responses.
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These changes include primary influences like herbage removal or trampling and higher order effects such as changes in vegetation structure, productivity or composition (Kauffman and Pyke 2001).